Chitwan


Chitwan District is one of the seventy-five District of Nepal, a landlocked country of South Asia. The district is in the western part of Narayani Zone with Bharatpur, the seventh largest city of Nepal, as its district headquarters. It covers an area of 2,218 km2 (856 sq mi), and in 2001 had a population of 472,048 people. Bharatpur is a commercial and service centre of central south Nepal and merger destination for higher education, health care and transportation of the region.The district takes its name from the Chitwan Valley, one of Nepal's Inner Tarai valleys between the Mahabharat and Siwalik ranges, both considered foothills of the Himalayas.Narayangarh, on the bank of Narayani River, is the main town with numerous shopping zones where people come from all over the district and neighbouring districts.Now there are about 40 Village Development Committees (each of which has nine wards or villages) and one sub-Metropolitan city – Bharatpur and a municipality Ratnanagar each of which has more than nine wards or urban areas.Chitwan is one of the few remaining undisturbed vestiges of the Tarai region, which formerly extended over the foothills of Nepal.
Origin

The name Chitwan is a composite of the Sanskrit words, "citta" meaning heart and,"vana" meaning jungle or forest. Thus, the meaning of Chitwan is Heart of the Jungle.

Industry


Chitwan is famous in Nepal because of its dominant production of mustard from which mustard oil is produced. This popularity of the mustard plantation in Chitwan is attributed to the predominant soil type of the place. The soil in Chitwan is mostly of the type silt. The silty nature of the soil is in turn attributed to the flooding over the ages in the past from the rivers like Gandaki. Chitwan is also profusely spotted with lands with soil type clay which are very good for use as rice fields. Other popular cash crops in the region are maize and wheat. The soil there is also very good for growing various types of vegetables such as cabbage, cauliflower, radish, potato, broccoli, cucumbers, pumpkins, and carrot.

Chitwan hosts 80% of the country's poultry industry, and is also famous for floriculture, mushroom cultivation and bee keeping.

At present Chitwan's largest business area, Narayangarh, is less accessible due to the movement of the main bus terminal due to the previous king's son's anger with the politics of the citizens of the city. This bus terminal is however no longer in use following a successful people's movement in 2006. It is believed that Nepali leftist revolutionary leader Prachanda spent his childhood and youth in Chitwan. Chitwan is adapting the New Community Movement South Korean model of development.

Places of interest


Chitwan has a particularly rich flora and fauna. Nepal's first national park, the Chitwan National Park together with the adjacent Parsa Wildlife Reserve support a species diversity much higher than any other on the Indian subcontinent. Rare species include Bengal tiger, gharial and the world's second largest population of Asian Rhinoceros, but also leopards, Mugger crocodile, Indian rock python and several species of deer. The protected areas are guarded by a battalion of the Nepal Army and patrolled by seven anti-poaching units Das Dhunga is a famous place in Chitwan - the people's leader Madan Bhandari was killed there in an accident.

Chitwan is also famous for saiyatha basically Rambag (kabi Dada). Rambag is known as Kabi dada now. There are some famous kabi like-Surendra Astafal, Ganesh Sharman, Arjun Astafal, L.B Chhetri, Gopal Poudel, Nabaraj Dhungana. it is located south part of kalayanpur, west part of narayanpur, east part from fulbari and north part of kailashnagar. It is in Bharatpur municipality-13. Eighty five % of people in Rambag are service holder in government or private office. Ninety percentage people are literacy.

Birendra Nagar

Bhandara

Dahakhani

Chandi Bhanjyang

Chainpur

Bagauda

Bachhayauli

Ayodhyapuri

Village Development Committees (VDCs)


 


Shivanagar

Sukranagar

Siddi

Shaktikhor

Saradanagar

Jutpani

Jagatpur

Fulbari

Gunjanagar

Gitanagar

Gardi

Dibyanagar

Darechok

Kalyanpur

Lothar

Kaule

Kumroj

Korak

Khairhani

Kathar

Kabilas

Pithuwa

Piple
Narayanpur

Patihani

Parbatipur

Padampur

Meghauli

Mangalpur

 


 


 


 


 


 



Major Places of Chitwan


·       Chitwan National Park
Chitwan National Park
is the first national park in Nepal. Formerly called Royal Chitwan National Park it was established in 1973 and granted the status of a World Heritage Site in 1984. It covers an area of 932 km2 (360 sq mi) and is located in the subtropical Inner Terai lowlands of south-central Nepal in the Chitwan District. In altitude it ranges from about 100 metres (330 ft) in the river valleys to 815 metres (2,674 ft) in the Churia Hills.

In the north and west of the protected area the Narayani-Rapti river system forms a natural boundary to human settlements. Adjacent to the east of Chitwan National Park is Parsa Wildlife Reserve; contiguous in the south is the Indian Tiger Reserve Valmiki National Park. The coherent protected area of 2,075 km2 (801 sq mi) represents the Tiger Conservation Unit (TCU) Chitwan-Parsa-Valmiki, which covers a 3,549 km2 (1,370 sq mi) huge block of alluvial grasslands and subtropical moist deciduous forests. For a country known for its beautiful mountains, the Gangetic flat lands of the Terai that stretches through out the southern part of Nepal provide a wholly different experience. (See the separate section on the Terai for more details.) A visit to Nepal remains incomplete without seeing the beauty of the Terai. And Chitwan is the best place to do so. The Royal Chitwan National Park, established in 1973, provides a great wildlife experience with its rich flora and fauna –read further for more details. The wildlife and the landscape are not as breathtaking as those found in Africa but still, the experience will stand out.

Chitwan is only 150m above the sea level. The place gets steamy from March-June, with peak temperatures reaching 43°C in the shade. Short grass makes Feb-May the best game-viewing season, but the autumn months are gorgeous, with Himalayan views, and in winter (December-January), Chitwan is pleasantly warmed compared to Kathmandu. The monsoon season (July-August) is intense, with pounding rain, swollen rivers, and luxuriant vegetation. While the rain isn't constant, the humidity is all pervasive.

Of Interest

Though one can visit neighboring Tharu villages in Chitwan, the major interesting focus of Chitwan is still the exploration of the Chitwan National Park.

Flora and Fauna
The flora and fauna of Chitwan makes it a great place for nature lovers. Chitwan has over 50 different species of mammals, 400 different species of birds, and 65 different types of butterflies in its hardwood Sal forests, riverine vegetation, and "elephant grass" savannah. More than 70 different species of grass grow here. The most famous wildlife in Chitwan is perhaps the single-horned Asian rhinoceros. A few decades ago, their number had fallen to less than 100, but recent count puts them at 400. These animals have thick armor like hide that is hard to penetrate even with a bullet. A fully grown animal can be as tall as 180cm. In spite of army protection for these animals and severe punishment for harming them, rhino poaching is still a problem as every organ of the animal carries some (probably superstitious) value. The horn fetches about US$10,000 per kilo and is believed to be an aphrodisiac. The dung can be a laxative; the urine cures tuberculosis and asthma. The blood can help cure menstrual problems. The hide keeps away evil spirits. And so on.


Chitwan has about 150 Bengal tigers left of the one time 3000 or so. Though poaching is a serious threat, the real threat for these majestic animals is the gradual loss of its habitat. A male tiger requires almost 60km space, and a female one requires a third of it. Chitwan is simply not big enough to handle many tigers. It is rare for one to actually see a tiger, though looking for one is an interesting part of the trip.

Other wild mammals one may see are leopards, various types of deer, monkeys, sloth bear, and antelope.

Exploring Chitwan
There are several ways to do this; and if you stay there two to three days, as most tourists do, you can try them all out.


An elephant ride is the most popular way of exploring the Chitwan jungle. For about US$15, the government elephants take you around the jungle for an hour and half. There are two trips a day, one in the morning at eight and another at four in the afternoon. During peak seasons, there are long lines for tickets. Your lodge will normally get you one for a dollar or two extra. If you are staying at the luxury lodges inside the Park itself, they have their own elephants too. Note that, other than the elephants owned by these lodges, only the government runs elephant services inside the Park. Privately owned elephant rides (which go for cheaper rates) take you around the outside of the Park, where the chances of game spotting are far less.

Jeep safaris are also very popular. For US$15, they take you around for four hours. A great way to spot wildlife in areas further inside the Park which are less trodden.

Canoeing along the Rapti river is another option. With some luck you will get to see Gharial crocodiles, marsh muggers, and variety of fish. With a lot of luck you may be able to see a Gangetic dolphin. The trip is a paradise for birdwatchers with possible spotting of kingfishers, ospreys, and egrets. Chitwan is known to have 400 species of birds. For less than US$3-US$5, you can canoe downriver for about an hour, and take a three hour guided walk back.

Jungle walks through the jungle is a good way to spot game. Monkeys, birds and deer are assured; rhinos are less common (but not uncommon). A guide is recommended, and you can hire one for $3 per day (or pro-rated for shorter time). They can help you stay safe as well as point out interesting things.

For those who want a more extended experience, and are there for more than a couple of days, overnight jungle hike deeper into the jungle can be rewarding. Most do a two night hike. Designated camping spots inside the park cost US$5 per night. Guides cost US$6-US$8 for the trip. You may have to rent your camping gear in Kathmandu, because there aren't really any such facility in Sauraha itself.

Transportation

Air
There are regular daily flights to Bharatpur, about 25km from the Park area, and to Meghauli . The flights take about half an hour. One can easily get rides from the airports to the Park area. If you plan to stay in one of the expensive resorts inside the Park, your flights to and from Kathmandu will probably be included in your package.

Land
Public buses go to Tadi from Kathmandu and Pokhara for about US$2 (twice the cost for more comfortable "tourist buses"). The ride takes about seven hours from Kathmandu, six from Pokhara. From Tadi, you will either have to cover the six kilometer distance to Sauraha on an ox cart (takes two hours to cover the distance!) or in a rented jeep for US$0.50. You can also rent a bike for about US$1 a day, or walk. On the way you need to cross a river which can be waded across during offseason, but during seasons with high water, local fishermen will ferry you across in their dugout boats for a couple of cents.


There are some who take a car from Kathmandu for the trip for an outrageous roundtrip price of US$100 (plus or minus US$50, depending upon your bargaining skills!). These are generally arranged by the lodges themselves. You can ask around in Thamel in Kathmandu. Another option is to rent a taxi in Kathmandu or Pokhara for about US$75 or less for a two day roundtrip travel. Split among two or three travellers, this can be reasonable.

River
Package organizers in Thamel will also arrange rafting trips to Chitwan. The trip normally starts at Mugling, 110km out of Kathmandu on the Kathmandu-Pokhara-Chitwan road. The trip itself is an easy river cruise that takes two or three days. The price ranges from US$30-US$75 per day. Before you pay up, shop around, bargain, and ask a lot of questions about the details of the arrangement.


Accommodation

The choices are of a wide range but, as usual, they fall in two general categories: luxury and budget. The luxury hotels in Chitwan are inside the Park itself. They cost about US$150-US$250 per person per night, and provide you quite an exquisite experience. Swimming pool, cocktail bars, safari ambience, organized game spotting trips, orientation by trained naturalists, and all. You will love it if you have the money. These luxury hotels generally package the whole tour for their price, including transportation to and from Kathmandu, meals, park entry fees, daily activities, etc. You need to make your reservations well in advance; if you are going to be there between November and February, the busiest season, a 6-12 month advance booking will be necessary.

The budget hotels in Chitwan are all located just outside the northern border of Chitwan National Park, in a village called Sauraha. Sauraha, in the past few years, is quickly turning into another Thamel or Lakeside. They range between US$3-US$15 per night; reservations are not necessary. Competition is so intense among the dozens of hotels that bargaining is very common. If you take the public bus to Tadi, touts who serve as agents to one of these budget hotels will pounce on you, don't give in. Check the hotel out yourself, and play one tout against another to get the best rate.

Some of the more upscale budget hotels in Sauraha also organize three day packaged tours of the area for about US$75-US$150 from Kathmandu. The price includes all basic expenses including transportation, accomodation, meals, tours of the area, etc. You can obviously do the same for much less, but if you want to go on these tours, the main tourist areas in Kathmandu and Pokahara have booking agents. Shop around, and bargain.

Dining

If you are staying in one of the luxury hotels inside the park itself, they provide you with excellent western meals. Except for the drinks and tips, the meals are normally included in your price.

Outside the Park, for those who stay in Sauraha, there are a few decent dining places in the main market place. As Chitwan becomes more and more popular among foreign visitors, more and more establishments are opening. The restaurants here don't meet the standards of Kathmandu, or even those of Pokhara, but they are manageable for a couple of days.

History


Since the end of the 19th century Chitwan - Heart of the Jungle – used to be a favorite hunting ground for Nepal’s ruling class during the winter seasons. Until the 1950s, the journey from Kathmandu to Nepal’s South was arduous as the area could only be reached by foot. Thus, in an area known as Four Mile Forest comfortable camps were set up for the feudal big game hunters and their entourage, where they stayed for a couple of months shooting hundreds of tigers, rhinocerosses, leopards and sloth bears.
In 1950, Chitwan’s forest and grasslands extended over more than 2,600 km2 (1,000 sq mi) and was home to about 800 rhinos. When poor farmers from the mid-hills moved to the Chitwan Valley in search of arable land, the area was subsequently opened for settlement, and poaching of wildlife became rampant. In 1957, the country's first conservation law inured to the protection of rhinos and their habitat. In 1959, Edward Pritchard Gee undertook a survey of the area, recommended creation of a protected area north of the Rapti River and of a wildlife sanctuary south of the river for a trial period of ten years. After his subsequent survey of Chitwan in 1963, this time for both the Fauna Preservation Society and the International Union for Conservation of Nature, he recommended extension of the sanctuary to the south.
By the end of the 1960s, 70% of Chitwan’s jungles were cleared using DDT, thousands of people had settled there, and only 95 rhinos remained. The dramatic decline of the rhino population and the extent of poaching prompted the government to institute the Gaida Gasti – a rhino reconnaissance patrol of 130 armed men and a network of guard posts all over Chitwan. To prevent the extinction of rhinos the Chitwan National Park was gazetted in December 1970, with borders delineated the following year and established in 1973, initially encompassing an area of 544 km2 (210 sq mi).


In 1977, the park was enlarged to its present area of 932 km2 (360 sq mi). In 1997, a bufferzone of 766.1 km2 (295.8 sq mi) was added to the north and west of the Narayani-Rapti river system, and between the south-eastern boundary of the park and the international border to India.

The park’s headquarter is located in Kasara. Close-by the Gharial and Turtle Conservation Breeding Centres have been established. In 2008, a Vulture breeding centre was inaugurated aiming at holding up to 25 pairs of each of the two Gyps vulture species now critically endangered in Nepal - the Oriental white-backed vulture and the slender-billed vulture.

Climate


The area is located in the central climatic zone of the Himalayas, where monsoon starts in mid June and eases off in late September. During these 14–15 weeks most of the 2,500 mm yearly precipitation falls – it is pouring with rain. After mid-October the monsoon clouds have retreated, humidity drops off, and the top daily temperature gradually subsides from ±36°C / 96.8 °F to ±18°C / 64.4 °F. Nights are cooling down to 5°C / 41.0 °F until late December, when it usually rains softly for a few days. Then temperatures are rising gradually.

Vegetation


The typical vegetation of the Inner Terai is Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests with predominantly Sal trees covering about 70% of the national park area. Purest stands of sal occur on well drained lowland ground in the centre. Along the southern face of the Churia Hills sal is interspersed with chir pine (Pinus roxburghii). On northern slopes sal associates with smaller flowering tree and shrub species such as Beleric (Terminalia bellirica), Indian Rosewood (Dalbergia sissoo), Axlewood (Anogeissus latifolia), Elephant Apple (Dillenia indica), Grey Downy Balsam (Garuga pinnata) and creepers such as Bauhinia vahlii and Spatholobus parviflorus.

Seasonal bushfires, flooding and erosion evoke an ever-changing mosaic of riverine forest and grasslands along the river banks. On recently deposited alluvium and in lowland areas groups of Catechu (Acacia catechu) with Indian Rosewood (Dalbergia sissoo) predominate, followed by groups of Kapok (Bombax ceiba) with Rhino Apple trees (Trewia nudiflora), the fruits of which rhinos savour so much. Understorey shrubs of Velvety beautyberry (Callicarpa macrophylla), Hill Glory Bower (Clerodendrum sp.) and Indian gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica) offer shelter and lair to a wide variety of species.

Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands cover about 20% of the park’s area. More than 50 species are found here including some of the world’s tallest grasses like the elephant grass called Saccharum ravennae, Giant cane (Arundo donax), Khagra reed (Phragmites karka) and several species of true grasses. Kans grass (Saccharum spontaneum) is one of the first grasses to colonise new sandbanks and to be washed away by the yearly monsoon floods.

Fauna


The wide range of vegetation types in the Chitwan National Park is haunt of more than 700 species of wildlife and a not yet fully surveyed number of butterfly, moth and insect species. Apart from King Cobra and Indian rock python, 17 other species of snakes, Indian starred tortoise and monitor lizards occur. The Narayani-Rapti river system, their small tributaries and myriads of oxbow lakes is habitat for 113 recorded species of fish and mugger crocodiles.
In the early 1950s, about 235 gharials occurred in the Narayani River. The population has dramatically declined to only 38 wild gharials in 2003. Every year gharial eggs are collected along the rivers to be hatched in the breeding center of the Gharial Conservation Project, where animals are reared to an age of 6–9 years. Every year young gharials are reintroduced into the Narayani-Rapti river system, of which sadly only very few survive.


 Mammals

The Chitwan National Park is home to at least 43 species of mammals. The King of the Jungle is the “Bengal Tiger”. The alluvial floodplain habitat of the Terai is one of the best tiger habitats anywhere in the world. Since the establishment of Chitwan National Park the initially small population of about 25 individuals has increased to 70–110 in 1980. In some years this population has declined due to poaching and floods. In a long-term study carried out from 1995–2002 tiger researchers identified a relative abundance of 82 breeding tigers and a density of 6 females per 100 km2. Leopards are most prevalent on the peripheries of the park. They co-exist with tigers, but being socially subordinate are not common in prime tiger habitat. Apart from these top predators fishing cats, jungle cats, clouded leopards, leopard cats, marbled cats, golden jackals, Indian wild dogs, sloth bears, Bengal foxes, Spotted linsangs, palm civets, Large and Small Indian civets, several species of mongoose, binturongs, honey badgers and yellow-throated martens roam the jungle for prey. Striped hyenas are rare and prevail on the southern slopes of the Churia Hills. Smooth-coated otters inhabit the numerous creeks and rivulets.

Rhinoceros: since 1973 the population has recovered well and increased to 544 animals around the turn of the century. To ensure the survival of the endangered species in case of epidemics animals are translocated annually from Chitwan to the Bardia National Park and the Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve since 1986. However, the population has repeatedly been jeopardized by poaching: in 2002 alone, poachers have killed 37 animals cruelly in order to saw off and sell their valuable horns.

From time to time wild elephant bulls find their way from Valmiki National Park into the valleys of the park, apparently in search of elephant cows willing to be seduced.

Gaurs spend most of the year in the less accessible Churia Hills in the south of the national park. But when the bush fires ease off in springtime and lush grasses start growing up again, they descend into the grassland and riverine forests to graze and browse. The Chitwan population of the world's largest wild cattle species has increased from 188 to 296 animals in the years 1997 to 2007.

Apart from numerous wild boars also sambar deer, Indian muntjac, hog deer and herds of chital inhabit the park. Four-horned antelopes reside predominantly in the hills.

Furthermore rhesus monkeys, hanuman langurs, Indian pangolins, Indian porcupines, several species of flying squirrels, black-naped hares and endangered hispid hares are present.

Birds


Every year dedicated bird watchers and conservationists survey bird species occurring all over the country. In 2006 they recorded 543 species in the Chitwan National Park, much more than in any other protected area in Nepal and about two-thirds of Nepal's globally threatened species. Additionally, 20 black-chinned yuhina, a pair of Gould's sunbird, a pair of blossom-headed parakeet and one slaty-breasted rail, an uncommon winter visitor, were sighted in spring 2008.

Especially the park’s alluvial grasslands are important habitats for the critically endangered Bengal florican, the vulnerable lesser adjutant, grey-crowned prinia, swamp francolin and several species of grass warblers. In 2005 more than 200 slender-billed babblers were sighted in 3 different grassland types. The near threatened Oriental darter is a resident breeder around the many lakes, where also egrets, bitterns, storks and kingfisher abound.
The park is one of the few known breeding sites of the globally threatened Indian spotted eagle.
Peafowl and jungle fowl scratch their living on the forest floor.


Apart from the resident birds about 160 migrating and vagrant species arrive in Chitwan in autumn from northern latitudes to spend the winter here, among them the Greater Spotted Eagle, Eastern Imperial Eagle and Pallas's Fish-eagle. Common sightings include Brahminy ducks and goosanders. Large flocks of bar-headed geese just rest for a few days in February on their way north.

As soon as the winter visitors have left in spring, the summer visitors arrive from southern latitudes. The calls of Indian cuckoos herald the start of spring. The colourful Bengal Pittas and several sunbird species are common breeding visitors during monsoon. Among the many flycatcher species the Paradise flycatcher with his long undulating tail in flight is a spectacular sight.

Tourism


Chitwan National Park is one of Nepal’s most popular tourist destinations. In 1989 more than 31,000 people visited the park, and ten years later already more than 77,000.

There are several lodges inside the national park offering full board and accommodation in combination with elephant and jeep safaris, rafting tours and guided jungle walks. The pioneer safari lodge is Tiger Tops Jungle Lodge which has been receiving guests since 1972, before the national park was established. Tiger Tops has developed standards for responsible conservation tourism and supports the “Long-term Tiger Monitoring Project” of the International Trust for Nature Conservation and anti-poaching units operating in the national park.

On the edge of the national park Sauraha is a well-known spot for tourists. Accessible from the nearby Bharatpur Airport, Sauraha offers a choice of hotels, lodges, restaurants and agencies that organize day trips into the protected area.

·                  Kshetrapur

·                  Narayangarh Bazaar

Narayangarh is a part of the city of Bharatpur in Chitwan District in the central part of Nepal, 146 km due west of Kathmandu\, and 136 km from Pokhara, at the Narayani River where it leaves the Mahabharat Range. It has about 71,000 inhabitants out of 225,000 of whole Bharatpur city, and it is situated at a latitude of 27.70 deg. and longitude: 84.42 deg. Its area is 554.0 km². The Narayani takes up the Kali Gandaki, Trishuli, Budhi Gandaki and Trisuli rivers, thus draining the area (Narayani Basin) between Dhaulagiri (west of Pokhara) and Helambu (north of Kathmandu).

Narayangarh is an important trading centre of the central Nepal. There is a domestic airport (Bharatpur Airport) with connections to Kathmandu and Pokhara, and is the gateway to the nearby Chitwan National Park. It is also a major road link for the eastern and western parts of the country to the capital city of Kathmandu (the highway to Lhasa is blocked by landslides, the Naubise - Hetauda highway is in poor condition and time consuming and a latest road from Dhulikhel to Kamalamai (Sindhulimadi) is under construction).

The major neighborhoods of Narayangarh are Shahid Chowk, Pulchowk, Kshetrapur, Belchowk and Milanchowk.

Narayangarh is very famous for "Taas", a spicy fried goat-meat lunch dish served with Bhuja or Cheura.

Narayangarh has extremely hot summers but very mild winters.

There are many Big Schools, Colleges/Universities, Hospitals, Recreational facilities, etc.. located in Narayangarh. Coordinates: 27°41′N 84°25′E / 27.683°N 84.417°E / 27.683; 84.417

·                  Tandi Bazaar

·                  Sauraha chowk

·                  Parsa Bazaar

Parsa Bazar is a town situated 19 km east of Bharatpur, in Chitwan District, Nepal. It lies in southwest of Nepal in Khairhani village development committee. It has population of about 40,000, and is one of the main marketing centres for east Chitwan. One of the best town in chitwan and now its model village development committee.soon going to municipality.Normally entire facilities are available here.98 percent people are educated

·                  Hakimchowk

·                  Bharatpur

Bharatpur is a city in the central-southern part of Nepal. Located in Chitwan Valley, Bharatpur is the district headquarters of the Chitwan District, as well as a separate Municipal authority, and is the seventh largest city of Nepal with the population of 89,323 (census 2001). The estimated population for 2005 was 117,162. Bharatpur is one of the fastest growing cities of Nepal. It lies on the banks of Narayani River and serves as a commercial centre of Chitwan district and central region of Nepal. It is located at the centre of Mahendra (east -west) highway and Kathmandu - Birgunj (North-South) road corridor. The proximity of this city from Kathmandu (146 km), Pokhara (126 km), Butwal (114 km), Birganj (128 km), Hetauda (78 km) and Prithivinarayan (Gorkha) (67 km) has augmented the importance of its advantageous geographical location. In addition to good road access, Bharatpur has regular daily air services to Pokhara and Kathmandu.

Most of the shopping area lies in the district of Narayangadh, while government offices, big hospitals and colleges are situated in other parts of the city, including Nepal's premier cancer hospital, B.P Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital. The economy of Bharatpur was traditionally based on agriculture. The agricultural land is gradually converted into the residential and industrial areas.Main industries of Bharatpur are small scale processing industries. A large number of poultry industries have developed in the municipality. It is believed that it covers more than 60% of the total poultry demand of the country. Moreover, this municipality has a substantial volume of poultry products for export trade. Other major productions of the city are honey, mushrooms, floriculture, and service industry (education and health). Chitwan is regarded as food surplus district, which is processed in Bharatpur and sold to major cities of the country including Kathmandu and Pokhara. Besides, multinational companies like Coca-Cola, San Miguel and Lay D Bois are also situated within the city. A large number of business and trading houses are based in the city. The major companies across the country have opened their branches in the city. Its central position along with the crossroads of Bharatpur has enabled it to increase its wholesale and retail trading function.

Transportation and communications

Bharatpur Airport is in the central part of the city connecting to Kathmandu. Four domestic airlines and one government airline make 7 to 11 flights a day. Mahendra (East West) Highway connects the city to various parts of the country and another highway connects Bharatpur with Kathmandu and Pokhara to the north east and north west respectively and with Birgunj (Birganj) on the border of India to the south. Bus, Micro bus and other land transportation are available to go out of the city, for internal transportation taxi, rickshaw and car/jeep hiring is available.Hakim Chok and Chaubiskothi, Shaheed (martyrs ) Chok, Pul (Bridge) Chok, Bel Chok and Lila Chok are major centres at intersections of major roads.

Communication: Nine major local FM radio stations broadcast from Bharatpur. They are "Synergy FM", "Hamro FM", "Radio Triveni", "Radio Dhurbatara", "Radio Chitwan", "Radio Kotagiri", "Kalika music FM", "Kalika FM" and "Narayani FM". The city also has its own TV channel, called Unique Channel.

Land line telephone services and mobile telephone services are available to the majority of areas. There are multiple private Internet service providers.

Banks: Bharatpur has become a city of Banks and Hospitals. There are more than 40 Banks and Financial Institution in Narayangadh district.

Attractions


Bish Hazari (20 thousand) lake


Bish Hazari (20 Thousand) lake is in the southern corner of Bharatpur. The lake is very attractive for the bird lovers and serves as an important bird watching centre.The lake area houses lots of crocodiles and thus is equally attractive for the reptile lovers. The Lake Lies inside the jungle of Chitwan National Park. Bish Hazari Lake lies just 5 km south from the city centre (Chaubishkothi) of Bharatpur.

Chitwan National Park


Nearby Chitwan National Park is home to one horn rhinos, elephants, royal Bengal tigers, crocodiles, deers and many other wild animals. It is the third largest tourist destination in Nepal after Kathmandu and Pokhara.Hotels of Bharatpur, Nepal and around Bharatpur . It is also enlisted in the world heritage list since 2041 B.S.

Hotels


There are many large and medium sized hotels and lodges near and inside Chitwan National park. Some of them are Royal Century, Narayani Safari, Chitwan Key men, jungle Resort, Jungle safari and tiger top resort, Wild life camp etc. Chitwan national park is also enlisted in the world heritage site which is the biggest honor for a natural site.

Narayani River


The Narayani River flows north to south in the west of Bharatpur. It is the deepest and also one of the biggest rivers of Nepal. The Narayani Bridge over the river connects Chitwan District with Nawalparasi District of Nepal. Small islands, like Nagarban in Narayani River are popular picnic spots.

Rapti River


Rapti River flows east to south west in the south of Bharatpur and makes the northern border of the Chitwan National Park.

Narayangadh


Narayangadh is the main shopping area of Bharatpur city, ward no.1, 2, 3, 4,5 areas. Is the main transit point for all the vehicles traveling via east-west Mahendra Highway and also for the people traveling from Kathmandu, Gorkha, and Pokhara through Mugling road.

Recently, Narayangarh has become a retail and commercial capital of whole Chitwan district and Bharatpur Municipality. It is a also the center for hospitality industry which includes Hotels, Lodges, Restaurants etc. and transportation hub for Chitwan district.

Famous religious and cultural landmarks of Bharatpur


·                    Devghat- Devghat is one of the most holy places for Hindus and is located in ward no. 1, on the banks of Narayani and Kali river junction. Various caves and temples of Hindu God and Goddesses are located here. Devghat also holds a very beautiful natural attraction because of the two main and holy rivers. It is just 7 km from the city centre of Bharatpur.

·                     Ganeshthan Temple (Baseni) is the most famous Hindu temple in Bharatpur and has a very long history. This temple is believed to be constructed by Muni Makunda Sen, King of Palpa in 15th century, but the modern temple was constructed in 1952 in the period of King Mahendra. This temple is located in Baseni, ward no. 11. Every Tuesday people from different parts of the city visit this temple to worship Lord Ganesh.

·                     Bageshwori Temple - This temple located in ward no. 2, is also a very old one, believed to be built before Muni Makunda Sen and was renovated by yogi Narahari Nath . Is located in the Devghat area development district, but the area of Bageshwori temple is being used by Bharatpur medical college.

·                    Harihar Temple (Narayangadh)- Harihar is another name of Hindu God Bishnu. This temple is on the banks of Narayani river.

·                    Kalika temple- Kalika is one of the very powerful Hindu goddess; this temple is in Bharatpur height.

·                    Jakhadi Mai Temple (Baseni)- This temple is on the eastern corner of the Jungle in ward no. 11 and was constructed around 30 years ago by the locals.

·                    Durga Temple (Baseni)- Durga Temple was built by the police force within the compound of Police Academy ,Bharatpur in 1992.

·                     Pashupatinath Temple (Mahendra Buspark) Bharatpur- This temple is on the banks of the Narayani river with very beautiful scenery of Narayani and northern Jungle of Devghat Region. This temple has all the facilities for wedding ceremonies and other religious purposes.

·                    Rameshowr Temple (Kchetrapur) - This Mahadev temple was built in 1994. This is the busiest temple in the city and also serves people through a health post and library.

Fort Palace and landmark buildings


·                    Upardanghari fort:- It is in the old Headquarter of Chitwan district and is believed to be made by Satrubhanjan Sah, son of Prince Bahadur Sah to defend newly founded Kingdom in the 17th century. It is located on the top of a hill and overlooks very nice natural scenery.

·                    Kasrra Durbar (Palace):- Is an old palace made by Rana Regime inside the Chitwan National park. Now it is being used as an office of National park and also hosts a museum.

·                     Diyalo Bangala Palace (Aptari Bharatpur):- This was the spring season palace used by the Saha Dynasty of Nepal. This palace was built by Late king Mahendra to rest during winter season. It is located on the banks of Narayani River in ward no. 2.

·                    DAO Building Bharatpur: - This long and attractive old building was built in the period of shifting the headquarter from Upardangghari. Now is used as an office of chief district officer.

·                    Bharatpur Covered hall: - Hall in guesthouse of Bharatpur for indoor games.

Educational institutions


Colleges


·                    Birendra Multiple Campus - The oldest campus of the city, which is located in the heart of the city, Bharatpur heights. This campus has played a vital role on the higher education history of Chitwan.

·                    Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science - The agriculture institution under Tribhuvan University (Rampur) (agriculture campus) is the main institution in the fields of agriculture and veterinary science in Nepal. Occupying a huge area, this campus is now declared as a university.

·                    Balkumari College - This campus is located near the Narayangadh Bharatpur Height and is the first public college in the city. Is gaining huge popularity by providing standard education and resources.

·                     Saptagandaki Multiple Campus - It is the largest public campus in the city and is in Dipendranagar ward no. 10, Bharatpur. It has been gaining its popularity for quality education at affordable fee structure for middle and lower middle class people. The number of teachers are about 85 and supporting staffs are about 25.The students enrollment in the college is about 3500.

·                    Bharatpur college of Medical sciences - This 700 bed teaching hospital is situated in Dipendranagar, Bharatpur.

·                    Chitwan Health Foundation and Research Center (CHFRC)*

Established in 2063 B.S as the nursing School of Chitwan Hospital and Health Foundation Pvt. Ltd, Chitwan Health Foundation and Research Center (CHFRC) situated at Bharatpur 10 Chitwan, is one of the pioneer educational institutions of this region catering the health related education and hospital services to the community of Chitwan region and the mid-zone territory. With existing demand of health human resources of the country, society and people, Chitwan Health Foundation and Research Center (CHFRC) was established in affiliation with CTEVTE. The college is currently running PCL Medical Laboratory Technician and PCL Nursing. Mr. J.N.Thapaliya is the chairman of CHHFRC and Govinda Akela is the Programme Co-ordinator.

·                     Bharatpur Pilot training school - Nepal’s first and the only private (the movement school is under Nepal Army Air Battery) pilot training school is in Bharatpur, which provides a Private Pilot License and a Commercial Pilot License, after the completion of the 4 month and 10 month courses respectively.

·                    Maiya Devi Girls College(Dhivy G College) - This campus specially for girls education is in Dipendranagar, Bharatpur.

·                    Chitwan Medical College and Research Centre - This newly opened medical college with a teaching hospital is located in the heart of the city Dipendranagar, Bharatpur.

·                     Prerana Higher Secondary School,-Prerana Secondary English Boarding School was founded in Bharatpur in 2046. The school has been providing quality education up to secondary level since then. Now, it is a matter of great pleasure that Prerana has Launched 10+2 program in science stream from 2065 onward. With CEO Dhivian Govender at the helm, it is a collective dream envisioned by an efficient academic team grouped together to run such an institution of higher learning that aims to provide quality science-education in a quality setting.It is totally under the management of academic personnel.

·                    SOS Hermann Gmeiner Higher Sec. School-This is a newly established science college especially for the orphans and also for the needy students only after being qualified through series of criterion.

·                     Others - Chitwan Science College and Orchid Science College are private +2 colleges in Chitwan. Apex academy (Kshetrapur), Presidency college (Dipendranagar), Shanti Academy college(Bharatpur), Xavier college (Bel chowk), Sahid smritimultiple Campus, crystal college(Ratnanagar)Nepal higher secondary school(Ratnanagar) also hold significant number of students.

·                    Oxford College of engineering and management, Gaindakot, based on bank of Narayani River. It offers courses like BBA, BCA,BE etc.

·                    Glow Shine Academy, Khairahani-4, Prasa Bazar, Chitwan, Grade Nursery to 12.

·                    Chitwan Hotel Training center, Bharatpur-10, Chitwan.

·                    Holy Vision public School, Bharatpur-5, Chitwan.

·                    Glorious Academy, Bharatpur-5 Chitwan.

·                    Central English Boarsing School, Bharatpur-4, Chitwan.

·                    Little Star English School, Bharatpur-6 , Chitwan.

·                    Viddya Bikash English Boarding School, Bharatpur, Chitwan.

·                    Little Flower English Boarding School, Bharatpur, Chitwan.

Hospitals


·                    Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital- This new University hospital is in the heart of Bharatpur-10, Chitwan. This hospital is providing all types of medical facilities.

·                    Mahendra Memorial Eye Hospital- This hospital is also located in Dipendranagar. With 25 bed capacity, it provides all type of services related to eye problem.

·                     B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital - This hospital was established with the help of the Government of People's Republic of China in 1994, with all cancer treatment facilities this is the meager cancer treatment institution in the country. This hospital is named after B.P. Koirala ,the democratic leader and the first elected prime minister of Nepal.This hospital is situated at Krishnapur, Bharatpur.

·                    CMS Teaching Hospital - This is the teaching hospital of Bharatpur medical college with 7 beds. It is providing all sorts of medical services to the locals, occasionally treating them.

·                    Narayani Community Hospital - This is a relatively new hospital and is located in the heart of the city, Chaubishkothi with 150 beds.

·                    Other important hospitals and nursing homes are Asha Hospital, Manakamana Hospital, Janasewa Hospital, Chitwan Hospital, Bharatpur Community hospital Pvt. Ltd., Om Hospital, Lok Sewa Pharmacy, Shanti hospital etc.

Radio Stations: Synergy FM, Kalika FM 91 & 95.2 MHZ, Radio Triveni, Radio Chitwan, Hamro FM, Radio Dhurbatara, Radio Narayani.



·                  Sauraha

Sauraha is a village in Chitwan District of Nepal situated close by the Rapti River and the Chitwan National Park. It is the eastern gateway to Chitwan National Park and jungle safaris for budget, mid-priced and 3-4 star tourists. Beginning literally as small and very quaint Tharu village of mud and daub huts and houses, with a half dozen mud and daub hotels, it has grown into a small quiet town full of western style hotels and resorts, restaurants, internet cafes, and gift shops.

Get in


By air


In addition to good road access, Sauraha has good air connections through Bharatpur airport with regular daily air services from Pokhara and Kathmandu. The airport lies just 15 kilometer to the west of Sauraha. It will need to change to bus, jeep, and taxi for connection to Sauraha.

By bus


·                     Via Kathmandu: there are three types of buses available. Cheaper Birganj bound buses which will drop you at Tadi Bazaar about 4 kilometers north of Sunauli where you can easily get local bus, taxi, rickshaws, tanga/pony carts. These second bit more expensive type is the direct tourist buses that are no more comfortable than normal intercity except they are full of tourists. Third types are more comfortable aircondition buses (Greenline, etc.). All buses will travel via Mugling, Narayangarh/Bharatpur, Tadi Bazaar, Sauraha; 4–5 hours.

·                    Via Sunauli / Bhairahawa on a eastern bound (Birganj/Biratnagar) buses traveling through Butwal, Bharatpur, Tadi Bazaar. Change to local bus, jeep, pony cart, rickshaw to Sauraha: 3 – 4 hours.

·                    Via Pokhara: direct tourist buses are available via Mugling, Narayangarh / Bharatpur, Tadi Bazaar, Sauraha; 3 – 4 hours.



·                  Gitanagar

Gitanagar is a village development committee in Chitwan District in the Narayani Zone of southern Nepal. At the time of the 1991 Nepal census it had a population of 11,173 people living in 2101 individual households.

The town was named after "Geeta Rani" during Rapti Land Distribution Project in early 1950s.

·                  Chowkbazar

·                  Rambag(kabi dada)

·                  kasara

·                  Meghauli

Meghauli is a village development committee in Chitwan District in the Narayani Zone of southern Nepal. At the time of the 1991 Nepal census it had a population of 12,281 people living in 2027 individual households.

·                  Dasdhunga

·                  Muglin

·                  Parsadhap Bazaar

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